The Science of Lighting Codes and Regulations

What works, what doesn’t, and why?

MLO 2Dark Sky Impact Analysis of the IDA/IES Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) second public review draft, June 2010 C.B. Luginbuhl, January, 2011


The June 2010 draft of the IDA/IES Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) is examined to gauge its impact on dark skies. Total lighting amounts permitted by both the prescriptive and performance methods for all Lighting Zones are calculated for 15 actual commercial site plans. Off-site impacts, as prescribed under Option B of the MLO performance method, as well as uplight amounts, are also evaluated. …


digital billboard Digital LED Billboard Luminance Recommendations – How bright is bright enough? C.B. Luginbuhl, November, 2009


Careful and sensible control of the nighttime brightness of digital LED signage is critical. Unlike previous technologies, these signs are designed to produce brightness levels that are visible during the daytime; should too large a fraction of this brightness be used at night serious consequences for driver visibility and safety are possible. A review of the lighting professional literature indicates that drivers should be subjected to brightness levels of no greater than 10 to 40 times …

To celebrate, promote, and protect the glorious dark skies of Flagstaff and northern Arizona.